Thartse Khen Rinpoche 塔澤堪.索南嘉措仁波切

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Ngor Thartse Khen Rinpoche and Sogyal Rinpoche

Ngor Thartse Khenpo Sonam Gyatso Rinpoche aka Hiroshi Sonami (1930-1988)[1] — a disciple of Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö, and the reincarnate khenpo of Ngor Thartse Sub-Monastery of the Sakya school in Tibet, before his exile to Japan.

哦.塔澤堪布索南.嘉措仁波切 (Ngor Thartse Khenpo Sonam Gyatso Rinpoche),又名祖南洋(Hiroshi Sonami)(1930年至1988年)[1] ,在流亡日本之前,是蔣揚.欽哲 .確吉 .羅卓(Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö)的弟子,也是西藏薩迦派哦寺塔澤拉章的轉世堪布。

Family Origins

Khen Rinpoche was born in Lhasa into an important land-owning noble family from the Shigatsé region. His father, Tsipon Shuguba, was one of the Treasurers of the central government of Tibet under H.H. the Dalai Lama, the father of four tulkus, and was appointed by the Dalai Lama to lead the final defense of Lhasa as His Holiness escaped. Tsipon Shugba, after nineteen years of imprisonment, was brought to America by his sons in 1980. During his imprisonment he also endured the death of his daughter and that of his beloved wife, who departed this life by means of phowa on the eve of her 'show trial' by the Communist authorities. Before his death, Tsipon Shugba completed his autobiography, which H.H. the Dalai Lama calls "an invaluable record of life before the fall of Old Tibet and existence under the Chinese regime." [2]

堪仁波切出生於拉薩,他的家族來自日喀則地區,是一個重要的貴族地主家庭。他的父親錫彭.蘇古巴(Tsipon Shuguba)是尊者達賴喇嘛時期西藏中央政府的司庫之一,是四位祖古的父親,並受達賴喇嘛任命在其出逃之時領導拉薩的最終防禦。錫彭.蘇古巴在遭受19年的監禁之後,於1980年由兒子們帶到美國。在他監禁期間,女兒和心愛妻子也相繼死亡。他的妻子在中共當局要對她進行「公眾批鬥」的前夕,通過遷識法(頗瓦)而離開此生。錫彭.蘇古巴在去世之前,完成了一部自傳,尊者達賴喇嘛稱之為「淪陷前舊西藏和在中國政權下生存的寶貴生活記錄 」。[2]

Early Life

Sonam Gyatso was recognized by the 39th Kyabgön Sayka Trizin Dragshul Thinley Rinchen and ratified by H.H. the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso, as the incarnation of the previous Khenpo of the Thartse Monastery at Ngor. He was subsequently enthroned as khenpo of Ngor Thartse Monastery and trained accordingly.

索南.嘉措由第39任薩迦崔津法王札秀.聽列.仁欽認證,並由第十三世達賴喇嘛土登.嘉措所認可,被認為是前一任哦 .塔澤堪布的轉世。他隨後坐床,成為哦寺的塔澤堪布,並接受相應的培訓。

One of Khen Rinpoche's brothers, who was recognized as a Gelugpa tulku, today lives in Switzerland. His younger brother, Lama Kunga Rinpoche, who is founder and resident lama of Ewam Choden (Sakyapa) Tibetan Buddhist Center in Berkeley, California, was born in 1935 and recognized as the tulku of Sevan Repa, one of the heart-sons of Milarepa, and initially lived in a Kagyü monastery but found Ngor Thartse Monastery more congenial, became a Sakyapa lama and was made Thartse Shabdrung.

堪仁波切的其中一位兄弟被認證為一位格魯派的祖古,現住在瑞士。他的弟弟,喇嘛貢噶仁波切 ,是美國加州伯克萊欸旺秋登藏傳佛教中心(Ewam Choden Tibetan Buddhist Center)的創辦人和常駐上師,1935年出生,被認證為是密勒日巴心子之一色邊日巴(Sevan Repa)的祖古。喇嘛貢噶仁波切最初住在某噶舉寺院,但覺得與哦.塔澤寺更投緣,於是成為一位薩迦派上師,並被認作塔澤霞仲[BC4] 。

Khen Rinpoche escaped from Tibet in 1958, managing to bring Ngor Monastery's famed collection of mandala thangkas with him, thereby saving them for posterity. His brothers Thartse Shabdrung Rinpoche and Tsenshab Rinpoche escaped the next year.

堪仁波切於1958年逃離西藏,並設法帶出了哦寺著名的壇城唐卡集結,使之得以流傳後世。他的兄弟塔澤霞仲仁波切和參夏仁波切(Tsenshab Rinpoche)則於次年逃離。

Life in Japan & His Most Important Work

After his escape, Khen Rinpoche worked in the Tibetan section of the National Library of Japan (hence the alternate name of Hiroshi Sonami, a Japanese rendering of Sonam Gyatso) and authored Tibetan Mandalas: The Ngor Collection. This catalogue raisonne of the famed Ngor Monastery collection of 139 painted mandalas, depicts the essential visual aspect of the Compendium of Tantras of Jamyang Loter Wangpo (1847-1914), a treasury of esoteric tantric knowledge which derives from the flowering of the Rimé movement in the 19th and 20th centuries.

在流亡之後,堪仁波切曾就職於日本國立圖書館西藏分部(因此別名為祖南洋,是日文的索南.嘉措),著有《西藏曼荼羅:哦寺藏品》。此目錄列出了哦寺著名的139張壇城圖相,描繪出蔣揚 .洛迭.旺波(1847至1914年)所編撰《續部總集》的精要視覺層面。《續部總集》是一部密續的知識寶庫,為在19世紀和20世紀蓬勃發展的利美運動(不分宗派運動)所衍生的成果。

Khen Rinpoche's analytical text represents an authoritative and complete analysis as well as a detailed explanation of the system of the Compendium of Tantras. Khen Rinpoche's text also identifies the meditational deities depicted in each thangka together with their accompanying Sanskrit root texts and the Compendium of Tantras text for each respective teaching. As a result of the extensive vandalism of the so-called 'Cultural Revolution' carried out by the Chinese in Tibet, the collection of mandalas rescued by Khen Rinpoche is the sole surviving complete set of the mandalas for Loter Wangpo's Compendium of Tantras in existence, and represents an irreplaceably precious contribution to the religious history of humanity. Only 300 copies of Khen Rinpoche's book on the Ngor Mandala Collection exist, and in 2010 a single copy commanded a price of over $15,000US.

堪仁波切的論著所​​代表的不僅是權威、全面的分析,而且也是對 《密續總集》體系的詳盡詮釋。堪仁波切在文中還標明每一幅唐卡中的各個本尊,以及各教法的相應梵文根文本與《密續總集》中的文段。由於中國人在西藏施行所謂的文化大革命,造成了影響範圍廣大的文物破壞,堪仁波切所搶救出的壇城圖集,便成為洛迭.旺波《密續總集》的唯一倖存完整圖集,為人類宗教史作出了不可替代的寶貴貢獻。堪仁波切的哦寺曼荼羅藏品一書只有300份;在2010年,單是一本的市價就超過一萬五千美元。

Life in the U.S.A.

In his latter years Khen Rinpoche resided in Berkeley, California, where he lived until he departed this realm due to stomach cancer. A deeply humble and compassionate man quietly engaged in his studies and meditation, Khen Rinpoche had few students and preferred to avoid any kind of fame. At the time of his death, Khen Rinpoche was translating an important Tibetan Abhidharma text, Three Experiences: The Jewel That Pleases, an esoteric text detailing psychology and metaphysics on the path and attainment of buddhahood.


Khen Rinpoche sometimes casually remarked that there must have been a mistake when he was enthroned as one of the highest ranking tulkus in the Sakya school. However, this observation was seen by his devoted friends and followers as yet one more example of his profound realization by putting himself below others since he was, in fact, a remarkable lama and the farsighted and courageous savior of a unique facet of the Triple Gem.



  • Ngor Thartse Khenpo Sonam Gyatso (bSod nams rgya Mtsho), Tibetan Mandalas: The Ngor Collection, Tokyo, Kodansha, 1983
  • 哦 .塔澤堪布索南 .嘉措,西藏
  • 《曼荼羅:哦寺藏品》,東京,講談社,1983年
  • Bsod Nams Rgya Mtsho, The Complete works of the Great Masters of the Sa Skya Sect of the Tibetan Buddhism, The Toyo Bunko (oriental Library) (Tôkyô), 1968
  • 《藏傳佛教薩迦派大師全集》, 東洋文庫,東京,1968

External Links


  1. Dhongthog Rinpoche's autobiography gives his dates as 1933-1987.
  2. In the Presence of My Enemies: Memoirs of a Tibetan Nobleman, Clearlight Publishers, 1995.
  • 董陀仁波切在自傳中說,堪布的生卒年份是1933-1987。
  • 《在我的敵人面前:一位西藏貴族的回憶錄》,明光出版社,1995年。

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Thartse Khen Rinpoche

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