Five major sciences 五(大)明 / 五明

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The five major sciences (Tib. rigné chenpo nga; Wyl. rig gnas chen po lnga) are part of the ten sciences or traditional fields of knowledge in which a learned person is supposed to be well versed. They are:

  1. 工巧明 craftsmanship (Skt. śilpa; Wyl. bzo rig pa)
  2. 因明 logic (hetu; gtan tshigs)
  3. 聲明 grammar (śabda; sgra)
  4. 醫方明 medicine (cikitsā; gso ba)
  5. 內明 'Inner science' or Dharma (nang don rig pa)