Twenty-eight ishvaris 二十八自在母

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The twenty-eight ishvaris (Skt. īśvarī; Tib. wangchukma nyer gyé; Wyl. dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad) are found in Mahayoga mandalas, such as the fifty-eight wrathful deities, and are also considered to be samaya-bound guardians in forms brought about by their own past actions. Yukhok Chatralwa Chöying Rangdrol explains the latter term by saying that such guardians "transcend the world and yet still appear in worldly forms created by their past karma and disturbing emotions like ordinary worldly beings. For example, when Vajra Manushya Rakshasi was the wife of Ravana, king of the Rakshasas, she had the face of a rakshasi, but then when she was abducted by Rudra, she transformed her rakshasi face into that of a yak."

The twenty-eight ishvaris are composed of four groups of six yoginis corresponding to the four activities, and of the four female outer-gate keepers:

相應於[息增懷誅]四事業的四類瑜伽母,各有六位,再加上四位外門的守護母,共計廿八位自在母

1. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of pacifying:
相應於息災事業的六瑜伽母
White ishvaris w.jpg

  • Rakshasi (white) 白羅刹天/牛頭羅剎女
  • Brahmi 梵天/蛇頭梵天女
  • Mahadevi 大天/豹頭大天女
  • Lobha 大自在天/
  • Kumari 童子天/
  • Indrani 帝釋天/熊頭帝釋女


2. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of increasing:
相應於增益事業的六瑜伽母
Yellow ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vajra 金剛/金剛蝙蝠頭女
  • Shanti 寂天/寂魔羯頭女
  • Amrita 甘露/甘露蠍面女
  • Chandra 太陰/月鷂頭女
  • Danda 遍入天/棍狐面女
  • Rakshasi (dark yellow) 深黃羅刹/虎面羅剎女


3. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of magnetizing:
相應於懷愛事業的六瑜伽母
Red ishvaris w.jpg

  • Bhakshini 食者/深鷲頭女
  • Rati 歡喜者/喜馬面女
  • Mahabala 大力者/大勢鵬面女
  • Rakshasi (pale red) 淡紅羅刹/狗面羅剎女
  • Kama 欲樂/欲帶勝鳥面女
  • Vasuraksha 護財/守財鹿頭女


4. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of subjugating:
相應於誅伏事業的六瑜伽母
Green ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vayudevi 風天/風神狼頭女
  • Nari 婦女/火母野羊頭女
  • Varahi 亥母女/豬首女
  • Nanda 金剛(匕首)/金剛侏鴉頭女
  • Mahahastini 鼻者/長鼻象頭女
  • Varunadevi 水天/水神蛇面女


5. The last group is composed of the four female outer-gate keepers.
四外門守護女
4 female gatekeepers.jpg

[譯註:東門:白金剛杜鵑首母,持鉤;南門:黃金剛山羊首母,持索;西門:紅金剛獅子首母,持鎖;北門:綠金剛蟒蛇首母,持鈴。]