Madhyamika 中觀派

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Madhyamika (Skt. Mādhyamika; Tib. དབུ་མ་པ་, umapa; Wyl. dbu ma pa) — the followers of the Middle Way philosophy, which teaches freedom from all extremes. They say that just as truly existent external phenomena were refuted by the Chittamatra school, a truly existent perceiving mind must also be refuted, since both are equally lacking in inherent existence, being mere dependent originations.

中觀派(行者) (梵文Mādhyamika;藏文དབུ་མ་པ་,音譯「鄔瑪巴」umapa; 威利拼音dbu ma pa) —奉持中觀哲理的行者,教義為離於一切邊見。其指出,如同唯識宗駁斥有所謂真實存在的所知外境,能知實存之心亦不可得,因兩者皆不過是相依緣起,了無本有的實存。

The Madhyamika school originates with Nagarjuna, who commented upon the direct meaning of the Prajñaparamita sutras in his Collection of Reasoning, which includes the famous Root Verses on the Middle Way.

中觀派由龍樹尊者所立,在其《正理聚》[1](Collection of Reasoning,龍樹六論集結)中論述了《般若波羅蜜多》經典的了義,並收錄了著名的《中觀根本慧論》[2](Root Verses on the Middle Way)。


Contents內容

1 Subschools分派

2 Madhyamika or Madhyamaka? 中觀派行者或中觀派?

3 Further Reading延伸閱讀

4 Internal links內部連結

5 External links外部連結

Subschools

There are two ‘schools’ or streams within the Madhyamika: the Svatantrika and the Prasangika.

These two approaches came about when two Indian masters wrote slightly different commentaries to Nagarjuna’s Root Verses text.

  • Buddhapalita insisted that the followers of Madhyamika should not make any independent assertions, but merely show the absurd consequences of holding to any extreme position. This approach is called prasangika, meaning “consequence”.
  • The other, Bhavaviveka, thought it was acceptable to use what is called “autonomous syllogism” (svatantra). This approach is called svatantrika.

Madhyamika or Madhyamaka?

There has been some disagreement in Western scholarship on the use of the terms Madhyamaka and Madhyamika. Great San­skritists such as T. R. V. Murti, a member of the Sanskrit Commission set up by the Indian government in 1959, advocated the use of "Madhyamika" on all occasions. Others use Madhyamaka for the system and the texts, and Madhyamika for its advocates.

Further Reading

  • David Seyfort Ruegg, The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1981
  • Kangyur Rinpoche, Treasury of Precious Qualities (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2001), 'Appendix 8'.

Internal links

External links

Middle Way Series on Lotsawa House(http://www.rigpawiki.org/images/a/ac/LotsawaHouse-tag.png)


1. 分派

由於佛護論師(Buddhapalita)和清辨論師(Bhavaviveka)這兩位印度大師在解說龍樹尊者《中觀根本慧論》時略有異趣,自此中觀派便分為兩個「學派」(分支):自續派(自立量,Svatantrika)與應成派(隨應破,Prasangika)。

佛護論師(Buddhapalita)堅持不應另立知見,惟要破除一切邊見立論所引申的無理結論。此派被稱為中觀應成派,意思是「結果」(consequence)。

清辨論師(Bhavaviveka)則允許使用「自立論證」(autonomous syllogism; svatantra)[自立量]。此派被稱為中觀自續派。

2.中觀派行者(Madhyamika)或中觀派(Madhyamaka)?

西方學界對Madhyamaka和Madhyamika這兩個語詞的使用時機,看法稍有歧義。有幾位大梵文學家,例如印度政府於1959年所成立梵文委員會(Sanskrit Commission)的成員之一——穆帝(T. R. V. Murti)便宣揚,皆以Madhyamika通稱即可。其他學者則在論述宗派或文典時使用「中觀派」(Madhyamaka),講到擁護者時使用「中觀派行者」(Madhyamika)。

3. 延伸閱讀

大衛.塞福特.魯格,《印度中觀派文獻》,德國威斯巴登:哈拉索維茨出版社,1981   

甘珠爾仁波切(康居仁波切),《殊勝功德藏》,波士頓、倫敦:香巴拉出版社,2001,附錄8[3]

4. 內部連結

中觀四大理論[4](Four great logical arguments of the Middle Way)

5. 外部連結

譯師屋的中觀系列(http://www.rigpawiki.org/images/a/ac/LotsawaHouse-tag.png Middle Way Series on Lotsawa House)

Categories: Key Terms | Schools and Lineages | Philosophical Tenets | Madhyamika

分類:關鍵詞 | 學派和傳承 | 義理 | 中觀


[1] 譯注:此六論為《中論》、《精研論》、《回諍論》、《七十空性論》、《六十正理論》、《寶鬘論》。

[2] 譯注:即姚秦三藏法師鳩摩羅什譯之《中論》。

[3] 譯註:中譯本《功德藏釋:三道甘露精華 經部上冊》已出版(Treasury of precious qualities : a commentary on the root text of Jigme Lingpa),譯者劉婉俐,靈鷲山出版社,2015/01/01。

[4] 譯註:「智悲佛網」有言:「於因觀察,金剛屑因;於果觀察,破有無生因;於體觀察,離一多因;於一切觀察,大緣起因。中觀以四大因抉擇萬法。」(http://www.zhibeifw.com/wap/r.php?id=4860&t=1 英文版:麥彭仁波切《中觀四大理論》)

External links