Dudjom Rinpoche 怙主敦珠仁波切
Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche or Dudjom Jikdral Yeshe Dorje (Tib. བདུད་འཇོམས་འཇིགས་བྲལ་ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེ་, Wyl. bdud 'joms 'jigs bral ye shes rdo rje) (1904-1987) — one of Tibet’s foremost yogins, scholars, and meditation masters. He was recognized as the incarnation of Dudjom Lingpa (1835-1904), whose previous incarnations included the greatest masters, yogins and panditas such as Shariputra, Saraha and Khye'u Chung Lotsawa.
依怙主敦珠法王二世吉札耶謝多傑仁波切（Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche or Dudjom Jikdral Yeshe Dorje, 1904-1987），是西藏最重要的瑜伽士、學者及禪修大師之一。他被認證為敦珠林巴（Dudjom Lingpa, 1835-1904）的轉世，而其過往前世包括了幾位偉大的上師、瑜伽士及班智達，諸如：舍利弗（Shariputra）、薩拉哈尊者（Saraha），以及卓本且瓊譯師 （Khye'u Chung Lotsawa）。
Considered to be the living representative of Padmasambhava, he was a great revealer of the ‘treasures’ (terma) concealed by Padmasambhava. A prolific author and meticulous scholar, Dudjom Rinpoche wrote more than forty volumes, one of the best known of which is his monumental The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Over the last decade of his life he spent much time teaching in the West, where he helped to establish the Nyingma tradition, founding major centres in France and the United States.
他是一位掘取蓮師伏藏（terma） 的偉大取藏師，被視為蓮花生大師的現世代表。敦珠法王著作甚豐且治學嚴謹，其著作超過40冊，其中最著名的鉅作為《藏傳佛教寧瑪派之根基與歷史》（The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History，或稱《西藏古代佛教史》釋明珠、劉銳之譯）。在最後的十多年歲月中，他致力於西方傳法，並協助在法國及美國安立寧瑪派傳承以及成立主要的研修中心。
His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche, Jikdral Yeshe Dorje, was one of the most outstanding yogins, scholars and meditation masters of recent times, who inspired not only awe in those who met him, but also devotion and deep affection. After the flight of the Tibetans into exile, it was Dudjom Rinpoche who was the first master to be accorded the title of Supreme Head of the Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, the ‘oldest’ school introduced into Tibet in the 8th century by Guru Padmasambhava.
依怙主敦珠法王吉札耶謝多傑 (Jikdral Yeshe Dorje) 是近世最傑出的瑜伽士、學者及禪修大師之一；讓與之相遇的人們對他不僅生起恭敬心，還有虔誠心與深切的敬愛。在逃出西藏並開始流亡之際，敦珠仁波切是第一位被冠以藏傳佛教寧瑪派掌教法王頭銜的上師，而寧瑪派即是於西元第八世紀由蓮花生大士所引進西藏的「最早」學派。
Dudjom Rinpoche was born in 1904, into a noble family in the south-eastern Tibetan province of Pemakö, which is one of the four ‘hidden lands’ of Padmasambhava. He was recognized as the incarnation of Dudjom Lingpa (1835-1904), a famous tertön or discoverer of concealed ‘treasures’ (terma), particularly those related to the practice of Vajrakilaya. Dudjom Lingpa had intended to visit southern Tibet to reveal the sacred land of Pemakö, but as he was unable to do so, he predicted that his successor would be born there and reveal it himself.
敦珠仁波切在1904年誕生於西藏東南的尊貴家庭中，該處為蓮師授記的四大隱土之一：貝瑪貴 (Pemako)。他被認證為著名取藏師 (tertön) 或伏藏 (terma) 發掘者敦珠林巴 (Dudjom Lingpa, 1835-1904) 的轉世，而敦珠林巴的伏藏特別與普巴金剛 (Vajrakilaya) 修持相關。敦珠林巴曾試圖要到西藏南方以揭開貝瑪貴聖地，但於有生之年中未能達成，便預言其下一任轉世將會於當地出生並由他揭開此聖地。
In his youth, Dudjom Rinpoche studied with some of the most outstanding masters of the time. He began his studies with Khenpo Aten in Pemakö, before attending some of the great monastic universities of Central Tibet—such as Mindroling, Dorje Drak and Tarjé Tingpoling—and East Tibet—such as Kathok and Dzogchen. But it was to Mindroling that he returned to perfect his understanding of the Nyingma tradition. Foremost among his many teachers were Phungong Tulku Gyurme Ngedön Wangpo, Jedrung Trinlé Jampa Jungné, Khenchen Jampal Dewe Nyima and Minling Dordzin Namdrol Gyatso.
敦珠仁波切早年從學於幾位當時最傑出的大師。在他到西藏幾處著名的僧院大學就讀之前，便隨貝瑪庫的阿滇堪布 (Khenpo Aten) 開始學習，之後曾研修於：中部的敏珠林 (Mindroling)、多傑札 (Dorje Drak) 以及塔吉丁寶林 (Tarjé Tingpoling)，東部的噶陀 (Kathok) 和佐欽 (Dzogchen)。不過他選擇回到敏珠林而圓滿學成寧瑪的傳承法教。在他許多上師中最重要的有：彭貢祖古久美涅登旺波 (Phungong Tulku Gyurme Ngedön Wangpo)、傑仲聽列蔣巴炯內 (Jedrung Trinle Jampa Jungne)、堪千蔣巴德威尼瑪 (Khenchen Jampal Dewe Nyima)，以及敏林多增南卓嘉措 (Minling Dordzin Namdrol Gyatso)。
Dudjom Rinpoche's main area of activity was in Central Tibet, where he maintained the Mindroling tradition, and especially at Pema Chöling and his other seats in the Kongpo and Puwo regions of southern Tibet. He became renowned throughout Tibet for the depth of his realization and spiritual accomplishment, as well as for his unsurpassed scholarship.
敦珠仁波切的主要事業範圍是在西藏中部，即其所護持的敏珠林傳承 (Mindroling) 所在處，其他則以位於西藏南部康波區 (Kongpo) 和普瓦區 (Puwo) 的蓮花法林 (Pema Chöling，貝瑪卻林) 和其他道場為主。他因高深的了證和修持成就，再加上卓越的學術表現，使得他的聲名遍及整個西藏。
Unique in having received the transmission of all the existing teachings of the immensely rich Nyingma tradition, Dudjom Rinpoche was especially renowned as a great tertön, whose termas are now widely taught and practised, and as the leading exponent of Dzogchen, the ultimate teaching within Tibetan Buddhism. Above all else, he was regarded as the living embodiment of Padmasambhava, and his representative for this time. A master of masters, he was acknowledged by the leading Tibetan teachers of his time as possessing the greatest power and blessing in communicating the nature of mind, and it was to him that they sent their students when prepared for this ‘mind-direct’ transmission. In fact, Dudjom Rinpoche was the root teacher of many of today's most prominent masters.
身為極少數曾領受內涵極為豐厚之寧瑪傳承所有現存法教口傳的大師之一，仁波切的特別聞名之處在於：他是大伏藏師，其所發掘的伏藏法教現正受到廣泛傳授與修習；他也是大圓滿法教此一藏傳佛教無上法教的首席傳法者。尤有甚者，他被視為蓮花生大士的親現化身以及在這個時代的代表。仁波切身為大師中的大師，與他同時期的主要西藏上師認為，以引介心性的教導而言，他的力量和加持是最大的，而這些上師也將他們準備領受「直指心性」 (mind-direct) 口傳的學生送到敦珠法王處。事實上，敦珠法王是當今許多最優異上師的根本上師。
He was no less famous as an author and a meticulous scholar. His writings are celebrated for the encyclopaedic knowledge they display of all the traditional branches of Buddhist learning, including poetics, history, medicine, astrology and philosophy. A writer of inspirational poetry of compelling beauty, he had a special genius for expressing the meaning and realization of Dzogchen with a crystal-like lucidity.
Amongst the most widely read of his works are the The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Its Fundamentals and History; which he composed soon after his arrival in India as an exile and which is now available in English translation. This monumental history of the Nyingma School is a masterpiece which presents, for the first time, a great deal of new material on the development of Buddhism in Tibet, and will remain the authoritative work on the subject.
At the invitation of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Dudjom Rinpoche also wrote a history of Tibet. Another major part of his work was the revision, correction and editing of many ancient and modern texts, including the whole of the Canonical Teachings (kama) of the Nyingma School, a venture he began at the age of 74. His own private library contained the largest collection of precious manuscripts and books outside Tibet.
受邀於達賴喇嘛法王，敦珠仁波切也寫下了一部西藏的歷史。還有另一個主要的工作，即是於74歲開始的一項險務—對包括整個寧瑪教傳經典 (kama) 在內的眾多古今典籍，進行重校、勘誤，以及編輯。他私人圖書館中所收錄的珍貴手稿及書籍，其收藏量乃屬在西藏境外的最大宗。
After leaving Tibet, Rinpoche settled first in Kalimpong, in India, and later in Kathmandu, Nepal. At a time when it seemed threatened with extinction, he played a key role in the renaissance of Tibetan culture amongst the refugee community, both through his teaching and his writing. He established a number of vital communities of practitioners in India and Nepal, such as Zangdok Palri in Kalimpong, Duddul Raptenling in Orissa, and the monasteries of Tso Pema Orgyen Heruka Nyingmapa Gompa in Tso Pema, and Dudjom Gompa in Bodhnath. He actively encouraged the study of the Nyingma Tradition at the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies in Sarnath, and continued to give teachings according to his own terma tradition, as well as giving many other important empowerments and transmissions, including the Nyingma Kama, the Nyingma Tantras (Nyingma Gyübum) and the Treasury of Precious Termas (Rinchen Terdzö).
仁波切離開西藏之後，首先安頓於印度噶林邦（卡林朋） (Kalimpong)，隨後安居在尼泊爾加德滿都 (Kathmandu, Nepal)。當時西藏文化看來將有滅亡之勢，仁波切透過傳法以及著作，而在流亡社區的西藏文化復興工作中扮演了主要的角色。他於印度和尼泊爾設立了幾處極其重要的行者社區，諸如：噶林邦的桑多背黎 (Zangdok Palri，銅色吉祥山)、奧里薩邦的督達拉天林 (Dudal Rapten Ling)，以及在措貝瑪湖(Tsopema) 和大佛塔 (Boudhanath) 的寺院。他積極地鼓勵鹿野苑 (Sarnath) 中央高級藏學研究院 (Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies) 對於寧瑪學派的研究，並繼續傳授他本身的岩藏傳承，以及給予許多其他重要的灌頂和口傳，包括寧瑪教傳 (Nyingma Kama)、寧瑪十萬續 (Nyingma Tantras)，以及大寶伏藏 (Treasury of Precious Termas — Rinchen Terdzö)。
When Dudjom Rinpoche was eight years old, he began to study Shantideva's Bodhicharyavatara with his teacher Orgyen Chogyur Gyatso, a personal disciple of the great Patrul Rinpoche. When they had completed the first chapter, his teacher presented him with a conch shell and asked him to blow it towards each of the four directions. The sound it made to the East and to the North was quite short, in the South it was long, and in the West longer still. This was to be an indication of where his work in later times would be most effective. Kham, in the east of Tibet, had been the birthplace of Dudjom Lingpa, who had already been very active in that region. In the South, throughout the Himalayan regions of Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal and Ladakh, Dudjom Rinpoche had many thousands of disciples; when, on one occasion, he gave teachings in Kathmandu intended only for a few lamas, between twenty-five and thirty thousand disciples came from all over India and the Himalayas.
敦珠仁波切八歲時即開始從他的上師，即偉大巴楚仁波切 (Patrul Rinpoche) 的法子—鄔金卻久嘉措─學習寂天菩薩的《入菩薩行論》 (Shantideva's Bodhicharyavatara)。當他們閱畢第一個章節時，其上師拿出一個法螺並要求他對著四個方位逐一吹響。他對著東方和北方吹響法螺時，傳音相當短暫，往南方時傳音則為長久，而往西方時傳音又更長久。這就指示了他日後傳法工作將在哪一方位最具成效。西藏東部康區—敦珠林巴的出生地，也是其積極傳法的地區。而南方遍及不丹 (Bhutan)、錫金 (Sikkim)、尼泊爾及拉達克 (Ladakh)的喜馬拉雅山區 (Himalayan regions)，敦珠仁波切擁有成千上萬的學生。當時他在加德滿都曾經僅針對幾位喇嘛傳法，卻湧入了兩千五百到三千位來自印度與喜瑪拉雅山處的弟子。
In the final decade of his life, in spite of ill-health and advancing years, he devoted much of his time to teaching in the West, where he successfully established the Nyingma tradition in response to the growing interest amongst Westerners. He founded many major centres including Dorje Nyingpo and Urgyen Samyé Chöling in France, and Yeshe Nyingpo, Urgyen Chö Dzong and others in the United States. During this historic period, he tirelessly gave teachings and empowerments, and under his guidance a number of Western students began to undertake long retreats. Dudjom Rinpoche also travelled in Asia, and in Hong Kong he had a large following, with a thriving centre which he visited on three occasions.
在他最後的十年生涯中，儘管健康違和且年歲漸高，他仍致力且長時於西方傳法，成功安立了寧瑪傳承以回應西方人對法教逐漸增長的興趣。他創設許多主要的研修中心，包括在法國的多傑寧波 (Dorje Nyingpo) 和烏金桑耶法林 (Urgyen Samyé Chöling)，以及在美國的耶謝寧波 (Yeshe Nyingpo) 、烏金卻宗寺 (Urgyen Chö Dzong) 等等。於此歷史性的時期，他孜孜不倦地給予傳法與灌頂，而在其指導之下有為數不少的西方弟子開始進行長期的閉關。敦珠仁波切也遊化於亞洲，在香港他有許多追隨者及一個不斷興盛的研修中心，而他曾三度造訪傳法。
In 1972, 1976 and 1979 he visited London at the invitation of Sogyal Rinpoche, who travelled with him during his tours of the West as his translator and aide. In 1979 he spent the whole month of May at the centre of Dzogchen Orgyen Chöling in north-west London, which was later to become Rigpa. He gave public talks, empowerments and teachings in central London, and special Dzogchen instructions to small groups. It was at this time that a unique 16mm. film was made of him teaching and practising meditation.
1972、1976及1979年時，他在索甲仁波切 (Sogyal Rinpoche) 的邀約下造訪倫敦，索甲仁波切也在其西方之旅中擔任他的譯者與侍者。1979年整個五月間，他都待在倫敦西北部的佐欽鄔金法林 (Dzogchen Orgyen Chöling) —即後來的本覺會 (Rigpa)。他在倫敦中部給予開示、灌頂及傳法，特別是對一小群弟子傳授大圓滿教法。就是在那次，一部獨特的16毫米影片紀錄了他的傳法與禪修。
Over the years that followed, Dudjom Rinpoche conducted a number of summer retreats at Urgyen Samyé Chöling in France. Eventually, `the wanderer, Dudjom’, as he sometimes used to sign himself, settled with his family in the Dordogne area of France, and there in August 1984 he gave his last large public teaching.
隨後幾年，敦珠仁波切在法國鄔金桑耶法林主持了不少次的夏季閉關。最後，「遊方者敦珠」(他有時用這個名號來簽字) 與他的家人定居於法國多荷冬 (Dordogne) 地區，而1984年他在當地給予最後一次公開傳法。
Dudjom Rinpoche was undoubtedly a fully realized master, yet, every day he would rise hours before dawn in order to practise; in the mornings he would pray for all those who had taken refuge in him, and in the evenings for those who had died. Continually he prayed that all those who saw him, heard him, came in contact with him or even thought of him would be freed from suffering. He always made a point of being accessible to people from all walks of life, and anyone who had the good fortune to meet him could not fail to be touched by his warmth, simplicity and vivacious sense of humour, as much as they were awed by his presence, deep wisdom and vast learning.
Writings & Termas
- Dudjom Tersar Ngöndro
- The Prayer of Calling the Guru from Afar, An Unending Spontaneously Arising Song
- Richö: The Alchemy of the Siddhas
- mkha’ ’gro snying thig sngon ’gro khrid yig
- ཟབ་གསང་མཁའ་འགྲོའི་སྙིང་ཐིག་གི་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་ངག་འདོན་ཟུང་འཇུག་ལམ་གྱི་ཤིང་རྟ་, zab gsang mkha' 'gro'i snying thig gi sngon 'gro'i ngag 'don zung 'jug lam gyi shing rta
- History of the Dharma (བདུད་འཇོམས་ཆོས་འབྱུང་, bdud 'joms chos 'byung)
- The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Its Fundamentals and History, trans. and ed. Gyurme Dorje (Boston: Wisdom, 1991)
- Tsokye Tuktik
- Pudri Rekpung
- Dudjom Traktung Pema Sokdrub
- Düddul Wangdrak Dorje Drolö
- Khandro Tuktik
- Chime Soktik
His Family Lineage
Dudjom Rinpoche was a householder, a yogin with a family and married twice. He had seven children from his first marriage, and three from his second.
With his first wife, Sangyum Kusho Tseten Yudron, his children are:
- Semo Dechen Yudron, their eldest daughter, who stayed in Lhasa, and who took care of Dudjom Rinpoche's seat, Lama Ling, in Kongpo.
- Thinley Norbu Rinpoche, their first son, an amazing master recognized as an incarnation of Longchenpa
- Dola Tulku Jigme Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche, their second son, mainly of the Sakya lineage, and father of Dudjom Sangye Pema Zhepa Rinpoche, incarnation of Dudjom Rinpoche
- Semo Pema Yudron, their second daughter, who lives near Dola Tulku Jigmed Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche in Qinghai
- Pende Norbu, their third son, who is also a tulku and is now living in Nepal
- Se Dorje Palzang, their fourth son, went to school in Beijing in the late fifties but was killed during the Cultural Revolution
- Tsering Yangchen, their younger daughter who passed away when she was young.
With his second wife, Sangyum Rigzin Wangmo, his children are:
- Dekyong Yeshe Wangmo, their first daughter, was recognized as an incarnate dakini and was believed to be an emanation of Yeshe Tsogyal, but died when she was a young woman.
- Chimey Wangmo, their second daughter
- Shenphen Dawa Rinpoche
- Tsering Penzom, their younger daughter
Several reincarnations of Dudjom Rinpoche have been recognised, including:
- Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Wisdom Publications, 1991
- Dudjom Rinpoche, Counsels from My Heart, Padmakara Translation Group, Shambhala 2003
- Dudjom Rinpoche, A Torch Lighting the Way to Freedom: Complete Instructions on the Preliminary Practices of the Profound and Secret Heart Essence of the Dakini, Padmakara Translation Group, Shambhala Publications 2012
- Nyoshul Khenpo, A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems: Biographies of Masters of Awareness in the Dzogchen Lineage, Padma Publications, 2005
- Ron Garry, Wisdom Nectar: Dudjom Rinpoche's Heart Advice (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2005)
- Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal, Light of Fearless Indestructible Wisdom: The Life and Legacy of H. H. Dudjom Rinpoche, Snow Lion 2008
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