Three outer classes of tantra 三外密

跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

The three outer or lower classes of tantra (Wyl. rgyud sde 'og ma sum, phyi'i rgyud) are classes of tantra which are common to both the Nyingma and Sarma schools of Tibetan Buddhism. They are also called the three tantras of vedic asceticism. They are:

Further Reading

  • Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, The World of Tibetan Buddhism (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), '18. Tantric Practice: The First Three Classes of Tantra'.
  • Tulku Thondup, The Practice of Dzogchen (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1989), pages 15-22.