Pramana (Skt. pramāṇa; Tib. ཚད་མ་, tsema, Wyl. tshad ma) is a Sanskrit term, the primary meaning and most common translation of which is 'valid cognition', meaning the correct knowledge of a particular object. The term is also used to refer to the corpus of Buddhist teachings on epistemology (the science of cognition, i.e. how we know things) and ontology (which investigates the nature of existence), as these two are inextricably linked in Buddhism. The pioneers of these teachings are the Indian masters Dignaga and Dharmakirti. Pramana is taught in all shedras since it is the basis for debate, an important learning tool in traditional monastic universities. In this context the term is sometimes translated as 'Buddhist logic'.
The standard definition of pramana is "a non-deceptive cognition" (Skt. avisaṃvādi-jñāna; Tib. mi bslu ba'i shes pa). There is some debate, particularly amongst Tibetan commentators, as to whether the definition should also specify that a valid cognition realizes something anew (gsar du rtogs pa).
According to the Instruments of Knowledge
In the Buddhist tradition, a valid cognition can either be:
- a valid direct perception (Skt. pratyakṣa ; Tib. མངོན་སུམ་, Wyl. mgnon sum tshad ma) or
- a valid inference (Skt. anumāna; Wyl. རྗེས་དཔག་, rjes dpag tshad ma)
Conventional and Absolute
- Conventional valid cognition (tha snyad tshad ma)
- conventional valid cognition of ordinary limited vision, or valid cognition of ordinary limited vision investigating the conventional level of reality (ma dag tshur mthong tha synad dpyod pa'i tshad ma), and
- conventional valid cognition of pure vision, or valid cognition of pure vision investigating the conventional level of reality (dag pa'i gzigs snang tha snyad dpyod pa'i tshad ma)
- Valid cognition of the absolute (don dam dpyod byed kyi tshad ma)
- Valid cognition of the categorized absolute (rnam grangs pa'i don dam dpyod byed kyi tshad ma)
- Valid cognition of the uncategorized absolute (rnam grangs ma yin pa'i don dam dpyod byed kyi tshad ma)
- Examining What is Observed (Skt. Ālambana-parīkṣā; Tib. དམིགས་པ་བརྟག་པ་, Wyl. dmigs pa brtag pa),
- Compendium of Valid Cognition (Skt. Pramāṇa-samuccaya; Tib. ཚད་མ་ཀུན་ལས་བཏུས་པ་, Wyl. tshad ma kun las btus pa)
- Dharmakirti, Seven Treatises on Valid Cognition (Skt. Pramanavartikadisapta-grantha-samgraha; Tib. ཚད་མ་སྡེ་བདུན་, Wyl. tshad ma sde bdun)
- Logic & epistemology
- Prime cognition
- Verifying cognition
- For more information see Dreyfus (1997), pp. 366-378 passim
- Georges B. J. Dreyfus, Recognizing Reality: Dharmakīrti's Philosophy and Its Tibetan Interpretations, SUNY, 1997
- John D. Dunne, Foundations of Dharmakirti's Philosophy, Wisdom Publications, 2004
- Marcus Perman, Tshad Ma Literature: Towards a History of Tibetan Buddhist Epistemology, unpublished M.A. thesis, 2006.
- Tom J. F. Tillemans, Scripture, logic, language: essays on Dharmakīrti and his Tibetan successors, Wisdom Publications, 1999
- Ringu Tulku, The Ri-me Philosophy of Jamgön Kongtrul the Great (Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, 2006), pages 60-64.