Four stages of approach and accomplishment 近修四支（修、近修、成就、大成就）
Four stages of approach and accomplishment —
- approach (Tib. nyenpa; Wyl. bsnyen pa)
- intimate or close approach (Tib. nyenyen; Wyl. nye bsnyen)
- accomplishment (Tib. drubpa; Wyl. sgrub pa)
- great accomplishment (Tib. drupchen; Wyl. sgrub ch'en)
These can be related to the four visualizations for mantra recitation.
- A Guide to Vajrayana Practice for the Rigpa Sangha, Section 2. Kyérim, 'The Four Stages of Approach and Accomplishment' (based on teachings by Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche), The Tertön Sogyal Trust, 2006, pages 22-25.
- Getse Mahapandita, Husks of Unity, translated in Deity, Mantra and Wisdom, Snow Lion, 2007, 'Types of Recitation', pages 134-138.
- Tulku Thondup, Enlightened Journey (Boston: Shambhala, 1995), pages 216-217.