Four criteria used when applying a title to a text 開題四法(解釋佛典標題的四種方法:辨體、明宗、論用、六成就)

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Titles are applied according to four criteria. They are intended to express:

  1. the meaning of the text;
  2. its range;
  3. its function;
  4. and such considerations as place, time, or people referred to, and the metaphors employed.[1]


  1. Khenpo Kunpal, The Nectar of Manjushri’s Speech, a detailed commentary on Shantideva’s Way of the Bodhisattva, p.29. Translated by Padmakara Translation Group. Published by Shambhala. ISBN 978-1-59030-439-6, ISBN 978-1-59030-699-4