"Five objects of knowledge" 修訂間的差異

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The '''five objects of knowledge''' (Tib. ཆོས་ལྔ་ , [[Wyl.]] ''chos lnga'') are:
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#重新導向 [[Five objects of knowledge 五類所知]]
#name (Tib. མིང་ , Wyl. ''ming'')
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#sign (Tib. རྒྱུ་མཚན་ , Wyl. ''rgyu mtshan'')
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#thought (Tib. རྣམ་རྟོག, Wyl. ''rnam rtog'')
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#perfectly authentic [[primordial wisdom]] (Tib. ཡང་དག་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་ , Wyl. ''yang dag pa'i ye shes'')
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#suchness (Tib. དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་ , Wyl. ''de bzhin nyid'')
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==Explanation==
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The word "'''sign'''" refers to what appears as the characteristics of shape, solidity, and so forth (as in the case of an object like a vase). When the name "vase" is attached to the characteristics of a vase, the characteristics of all other things are implicitly excluded, and the label is identified with the vase itself. This is what is meant by a '''name'''. By giving a name to something, one gives a clear indication of what the characteristics (i.e., the sign) of that thing are. These two items (sign and name) constitute [[three natures|imputed nature]] (Wyl. ''kun btags'') because they are the domain of words and thoughts in being the dualistic appearance of subject and object, which, when investigated, are found to be false or deceptive.
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All the phenomena of the [[main mind|mind]] and [[fifty-one mental states|mental factors]] that apprehend the perceived object are called '''thoughts'''. They can be categorized as the [[eight consciousnesses|eight kinds of consciousness]]. This refers to the [[three natures|dependent nature]] (Wyl. ''gzhan dbang'') and is the ground for all manifest appearance merely on the [[two truths|relative level]].
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The [[selflessness|two no-selves]] refer to the [[dharmadhatu]], or '''suchness'''. The subject that engages in this suchness is self-cognizing [[awareness]] (Wyl. ''so sor rang rig pa'') free from dualistic thought, and this is what is called the '''perfectly authentic [[primordial wisdom]]'''. The latter two items ("suchness" as the object and "perfectly authentic primordial wisdom" as the subject) are referred to as the [[three natures|completely existent nature]] (Wyl. ''yongs grub''). This nature is not truly existent in itself; it is, however, the unmistaken nature of things—hence its name.
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Of the five objects of knowledge, name, sign and thought belong to the [[two truths|relative truth]].
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Although on the conventional level phenomena in all their variety are but the appearances of the mind, the mind itself does not exist truly. To understand thus that all phenomena, from form to omniscience, are untrue and unproduced refers to the [[two truths|ultimate truth]].
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Since [[pramana|reasoning]] proves that in these five objects of knowledge, the traditions of both the [[Chittamatra|Chittamatrin]]s and the [[Madhyamika]]s are included, one should understand that they constitute the entire [[Mahayana]].<ref>''[[Ornament of the Middle Way|The Adornment of the Middle Way]]'', [[Shantarakshita]]’s [[Madhyamakalankara]] with commentary by [[Jamgön Mipham]]. Padmakara Translation Group. Published by Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-241-9</ref>
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==References==
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<small><references/></small>
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==Alternative Translations==
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*Five principles (Thomas H. Doctor)
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[[Category: Pramana]]
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[[Category: Enumerations]]
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[[Category: 05-Five]]
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於 2015年8月19日 (三) 12:27 的最新修訂