Fifty-eight wrathful deities 五十八忿怒尊

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The fifty-eight wrathful deities belong to the mandala of the Hundred Peaceful and Wrathful Deities, and feature in several practices and cycles of teachings, most notably the Tibetan Book of the Dead and the Guhyagarbha Tantra. They are:

1-10) Five wrathful herukas and their five consorts 五大飲血尊 / 五忿怒尊(赫魯迦或嘿嚕嘎)佛父母

The five wrathful herukas and their five consorts—the wrathful aspect of the buddhas of the five families and of the five female buddhas—are:

五大嘿嚕嘎父母尊乃五方佛父母尊的忿怒相

  1. Buddhaheruka and his consort Buddhakrodhishvari;
    佛部嘿嚕嘎及佛部忿怒界自在佛母
  2. Vajraheruka and his consort Vajrarodhishvari;
    金剛部嘿嚕嘎及金剛部忿怒界自在佛母
  3. Ratnaheruka and his consort Ratnarodhishvari;
    寶生部嘿嚕嘎及寶生部忿怒界自在佛母
  4. Padmaheruka and his consort Padmakrodhishvari and
    蓮華部嘿嚕嘎及蓮華部忿怒界自在佛母
  5. Karmaheruka and his consort Karmakrodhishvari.
    羯磨部(事業部)嘿嚕嘎及羯磨部忿怒界自在佛母


11-18) The Eight Wrathful Females 八忿怒母

The eight wrathful females or eight gaurima (Skt. gaurī; Tib. gaurima; Wyl. gau ri ma brgyad) are:

[譯註:八菩薩的忿怒相]

  1. Gauri (Skt. Gaurī; Wyl. ko'u ri) 郭日瑪
  2. Pukkasi (Skt. Pukkasī; Wyl. pus ka si) 布噶西
  3. Chaurimatrika (Skt. Caurī; Wyl. tso'u ri) 橋日瑪赤卡
  4. Ghasmari (Skt. Ghasmarī; Wyl. kas ma ri) 噶斯瑪日
  5. Pramoha (Skt. Pramohā; Wyl. pra mo) 巴拉摩哈
  6. Chandali (Skt. Caṇḍālī; Wyl. tsan dha li) 千答里
  7. Vetali (Skt. Vetālī; Wyl. be'e ta li) 毘答里
  8. Shmashani (Skt. Śmaśānī; Wyl. sme sha ni) 美夏尼

19-26) The Eight Tramen 八獸首母

The eight tramen (Wyl. phra men brgyad; Skt. piśacī), or eight singhama (Wyl. sim ha brgyad) are animal-headed deities (tramen literally means 'hybrid'). They are:

  1. Simhamukha (Skt. Siṃhamukhā) 獅首母
  2. Vyaghrimukha (Skt. Vyāghramukhā) 虎首母
  3. Srigalamukha (Skt. Śṛgālamukhā) 狐首母
  4. Shvanamukha (Skt. Śvanmukhā) 狼首母
  5. Gridhamukha (Skt. Gṛdhramukhā) 鷲首母
  6. Kangkamukha (Skt. Kaṅkamukhā; Wyl. kang ka mu kha), dark red in colour with a kite's/heron's (?) (Skt. kaṅka) head 赤雞首母(蒼鷲頭母)
  7. Kakamukha (Skt. Kākamukhā) 鴉首母
  8. Ulumukha (Skt. Ulūkamukhā) 梟首母


27-30) The Four Female Gatekeepers 四守門女/四方守護明母

The four female gatekeepers (Wyl. sgo ma bzhi) are:

  1. Ankusha 馬面鐵鉤女 (Skt. Aṅkuśā; Wyl. lcags kyu ma or rta gdong ma) also called 'Horse Face' or 'Iron Hook', guarding the east gate and in union with Vijaya (or Achala?)
    金剛鐵鉤女,又稱馬面或鐵鉤,守護東門,與尊勝明王(或說不動明王)雙運 .
  2. Pasha 豬面繩索女 (Skt. Pāśā; Wyl. zhags pa ma or phag gdong ma) also called 'Sow Face' or 'the Noose', guarding the south gate and in union with Yamantaka
    金剛繩女,又稱亥母面或繩索套,守護南門,與閻魔敵明王雙運
  3. Shrinkhala 獅面鐵鍊女 (Skt. Śriṅkhalā; Wyl. lcags sgrog ma or seng gdong ma) also called 'Lion Face' or 'Iron Chain', guarding the west gate and in union with Hayagriva
    金剛鐵鍊女,又稱獅面或鐵鍊,守護西門,與馬頭明王雙運
  4. Ghanta 狼面鈴女 (Skt. Ghaṇtā; Wyl. dril bu ma or spyang gdong ma) also called 'Wolf Face' or 'the Bell', guarding the north gate and in union with Amritakundali.
    金剛鈴女,又稱狼面或鈴,守護北門,與甘露漩明王雙運

31-58) The Twenty-eight Ishvaris 二十八自在母

The twenty-eight ishvaris (Skt. īśvarī; Tib. wangchukma nyer gyé; Wyl. dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad)

The twenty-eight ishvaris are composed of four groups of six yoginis corresponding to the four activities, and of the four female outer-gate keepers:

相應於[息增懷誅]四事業的四類瑜伽母,各有六位,再加上四位外門的守護母,共計廿八位自在母

1. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of pacifying:
相應於息災事業的六瑜伽母
White ishvaris w.jpg

  • Rakshasi (white) 白羅刹天/牛頭羅剎女
  • Brahmi 梵天/蛇頭梵天女
  • Mahadevi 大天/豹頭大天女
  • Lobha 大自在天/
  • Kumari 童子天/
  • Indrani 帝釋天/熊頭帝釋女


2. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of increasing:
相應於增益事業的六瑜伽母
Yellow ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vajra 金剛/金剛蝙蝠頭女
  • Shanti 寂天/寂魔羯頭女
  • Amrita 甘露/甘露蠍面女
  • Chandra 太陰/月鷂頭女
  • Danda 遍入天/棍狐面女
  • Rakshasi (dark yellow) 深黃羅刹/虎面羅剎女


3. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of magnetizing:
相應於懷愛事業的六瑜伽母
Red ishvaris w.jpg

  • Bhakshini 食者/深鷲頭女
  • Rati 歡喜者/喜馬面女
  • Mahabala 大力者/大勢鵬面女
  • Rakshasi (pale red) 淡紅羅刹/狗面羅剎女
  • Kama 欲樂/欲帶勝鳥面女
  • Vasuraksha 護財/守財鹿頭女


4. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of subjugating:
相應於誅伏事業的六瑜伽母
Green ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vayudevi 風天/風神狼頭女
  • Nari 婦女/火母野羊頭女
  • Varahi 亥母女/豬首女
  • Nanda 金剛(匕首)/金剛侏鴉頭女
  • Mahahastini 鼻者/長鼻象頭女
  • Varunadevi 水天/水神蛇面女


5. The last group is composed of the four female outer-gate keepers.
四外門守護女
4 female gatekeepers.jpg

[譯註:東門:白金剛杜鵑首母,持鉤;南門:黃金剛山羊首母,持索;西門:紅金剛獅子首母,持鎖;北門:綠金剛蟒蛇首母,持鈴。]


59-60) Chemchok Heruka and his Consort 千秋飲血尊(大殊勝赫魯迦或大殊勝嘿嚕嘎)佛父母

The fifty-eight wrathful deities become sixty when you add Chemchok Heruka (Wyl. che mchog heruka) and his consort Krodhishvari, who are the wrathful aspects of Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri.

若將五十八位忿怒尊加上普賢佛父母的忿怒相:大勝飲血尊與忿怒界自在佛母,則為六十尊


Further Reading 延伸閱讀

  • Thinley Norbu, The Small Golden Key (Shambhala Publications, 1999), pages 81-88.