Alak Zenkar Rinpoche 阿拉.森噶仁波切

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Alak Zenkar Rinpoche in Lerab Ling, 2007

Alak Zenkar Rinpoche Tupten Nyima (Tib. ཨ་ལགས་གཟན་དཀར་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཉི་མ་, Wyl. a lags gzan dkar rin po che thub bstan nyi ma) aka Tudeng Nima (b. 1943) — the incarnation of Alak Zenkar Pema Ngödrup Rolwé Dorje. He has been instrumental in the resurgence of Buddhism and Tibetan literature in Kham in recent decades.

阿拉.森噶仁波切土登.尼瑪,又名土登.尼瑪(生於1943),是阿拉.森噶.貝瑪.聶如.若維.多傑的化身。近幾十年來,他對於康區佛教與西藏文學的復興,一直有相當作為。

Biography 生平

Alak Zenkar Rinpoche was born in Lhagang in Minyak, East Tibet, in 1943. His father was called Nyima Özer, and his mother, who was from Gyarong, was called Rinchen Lhamo.

阿拉.森噶仁波切於1943年出生於西藏東部木雅地區的塔公。他的父親是寧瑪.厄瑟;他的母親來自嘉絨,名為仁謙.拉嫫。

In 1946 he was recognized as the incarnation of Alak Zenkar Pema Ngödrup Rolwé Dorje (1881-1943), who was in turn the direct incarnation of Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje (1800-1866), the mind incarnation of Jikmé Lingpa (1730-1798). Following his recognition, he was invited to take his seat in two different monasteries, Maha Kyilung monastery in Gyarong, which had been established by Do Khyentse, and the Sakya monastery of Lhagang in Minyak, which was home to the famous Lhagang Jowo statue.

他在1946年,被認證為阿拉.森噶.貝瑪.聶如.若維.多傑(Alak Zenkar Pema Ngödrup Rolwé Dorje)(1881~1943)的轉世,後者則是多.欽哲.耶喜.多傑(Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje) (1800~1866)的直接轉世—也就是吉美林巴(Jikmé Lingpa)(1730~1798)的意化身。認證之後,他受邀至兩個不同的寺院舉行升座儀式,一個是位於嘉絨、由多欽哲建立的大金龍(Maha Kyilung)寺,另一個是位在木雅塔公的薩迦寺,這是著名的塔公覺沃(Lhagang Jowo)佛像所在之處。

Rikhü Kushok[1] (1892-1956), the chief Sakyapa lama in Minyak, was called upon to decide which of the two monasteries should take charge of the young tulku’s education, and he decided that Zenkar Rinpoche should divide his time between them both, spending a year at one, followed by a year at the other and so on.

在木雅的薩迦派首要上師里區.庫秀(1892~1956),被委以任務,要從兩間寺院中選出一間來負責年輕祖古的教育,而他最後決定森噶仁波切應該把時間輪流分配給兩間寺院,一年在這一間,隔年到另一間。

Zenkar Rinpoche was one of two tulkus at Lhagang. The other was a child of Chinese parents. They were the first generation of tulkus. Previously the seniormost monks had been those who had gone to Ngor to study and had become acharyas. Lhagang had a connection with the previous Zenkar Rinpoche and also with Do Khyentse’s sister, the great dakini, Losal Dolma (1802-1861).

森噶仁波切是塔公的兩位祖古之一。另一位是漢族之子。他們倆位都是第一代的祖古。先前,最資深的僧侶們一直都是那些到過哦巴寺(Ngor)讀書、且成為阿闍黎的人。塔公與前世森噶仁波切以及多欽哲的妹妹、偉大的空行母洛薩.多瑪(1802~1861),­­都有關係。

At the age of eight, Rinpoche studied the Bodhicharyavatara with his teacher Tulku Apar, from Maha Kyilung Monastery, who was a student of Dodrupchen’s root teacher, Yukhok Chatralwa. And he also had lots of oral traditions for commenting on the Kunzang Lamé Shyalung. The other main teacher at Maha Kyilung at the time was Akhu Gendün Gyatso, who had studied for five years at Dzogchen Shri Singha.

八歲時,仁波切跟著從大金龍(Maha Kyilung)寺來的老師祖古阿巴爾學習《入菩薩行論》。祖古阿巴爾是多智欽仁波切的根本上師玉括.恰乍瓦(Yukhok Chatralwa)的學生。他同時具有大量有關《普賢上師言教》(Kunzang Lamé Shyalung)釋論的口傳。當時在大金龍寺有另一位主要的老師阿庫.根敦.嘉措(Akhu Gendün Gyatso),他在佐钦寺熙日僧哈佛學院(Dzogchen Shri Singha,意思是大圓滿吉祥獅子)修學過五年。

He received novice ordination from Dzogchen Khenpo Thubten Nyendrak, also known as Khenpo Thubnyen, and was given the name Thubten Lungrik Mawé Nyima. From Khenpo Thubten Nyendrak he also received teachings on the Guhyagarbha Tantra, including The Ornament of the Wisdom Mind of the Lord of Secrets (gsang bdag dgongs rgyan) by Lochen Dharmashri and the overview commentary known as Key to the Precious Treasury written by Dodrupchen Jikmé Tenpé Nyima.

Rinpoche's tutor, Khenpo Yönten Gönpo

他從佐欽.堪布.圖登.年乍,也就是堪布圖涅那裡領受了沙彌戒,得到了法名圖登.呂吉.瑪威.尼瑪。從堪布圖登.年乍那兒,他也獲得《幻網經》(Guhyagarbha Tantra,秘密藏續)的教法,包括由羅千.達瑪師利尊者所撰之《秘密主密意莊嚴》,以及由多智欽.紀美.滇貝.尼瑪撰寫的概述釋論《寶藏之鑰》。

His two principal teachers were the Sixth Dzogchen Rinpoche Jikdral Changchub Dorje (1935-1958/9) and his tutor, Khenpo Yönten Gönpo (1899-1959), who was known as Khenpo Gönri. From the Sixth Dzogchen Rinpoche, he received the transmissions of Nyingma Kama, the collection of termas known as The Excellent Wish-Fulfilling Vase (‘dod ‘jo bum bzang) and the root texts of the Longchen Nyingtik. From Khenpo Gönrig he received the Seven Treasures of Longchenpa, Yeshe Lama, Barak Namsum, Vajrakilaya according to the Phurba Gyüluk, Chetsün Nyingtik and Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje’s cycle of chöd teachings, Self Liberation of Grasping (Dzinpa Rangdrol) many times.

他的兩位主要授課老師為第六世佐欽仁波切季札.羌邱.多傑(1935-1958/9)和他的親教師,堪布圓顛.袞波(1899~1959),又稱堪布袞利。從第六世佐欽仁波切那兒,他獲得了《寧瑪教傳》的口傳、以「殊勝如意寶瓶」(The Excellent Wish-Fulfilling Vase)為名的伏藏集結、《龍欽心髓》(Longchen Nyingtik)的根本文等。從堪布袞利那兒,他多次領受了龍欽巴的《七寶藏》、《大圓勝慧》(Yeshe Lama意譯)、《巴熱南孫》(Barak Namsum音譯)、依據普巴舉盧(Phurba Gyüluk音譯)的普巴金剛修法、《傑尊心髓》(Chetsün Nyingtik),以及多.欽哲.耶喜.多傑的施身法集《執著自解脫》(Dzinpa Rangdrol)。

He received teachings on the three sets of vows (sdom gsum) from Dzogchen Khenpo Pema Tsewang . He received teachings on poetry as well as on Shabkar’s Dzogchen instruction manual (khrid yig) from Khenpo Ngawang Norbu. And he received a commentary on the Aspiration Prayer of Sukhavati (bde smon) from Alak Lakla Chödrup.

他從佐欽的堪布.貝瑪.澤旺那兒領受了三律儀(sdom gsum三戒)的教授。從堪布納旺.諾布那裡學習了詩歌,並得到夏卡(Shabkar)的大圓滿竅訣指引(khrid yik)。他也從阿拉.剌拉.確竹(Alak Lakla Chödrup)那裡,得到求生極樂淨土願文(bde smon)的釋論。

It was in Dzogchen that Zenkar Rinpoche first met the Fourth Dodrupchen Rinpoche. Maha Kyilung was in some sense a branch of Dodrup monastery. When they first met, Dodrupchen Rinpoche was about to give the empowerments for the Treasury of Precious Termas (rin chen gter mdzod), so Zenkar Rinpoche went to Dodrup Monastery to receive it.

在佐欽,森噶仁波切第一次見到了第四世多智欽仁波切。大金龍寺在某種意義上,是多智欽寺的分院。他們首次見面時,多智欽仁波切正要傳授《大寶伏藏》 (rin chen gter mdzod)的灌頂,所以森噶仁波切便前往多智欽寺領受。

Shortly before this time, Dodrupchen monastery had based its study programme largely on Gelugpa teachings, especially the yigcha texts of Jamyang Shyepa. However, Khenpo Kunpal had recently told Dodrupchen Rinpoche to establish a new shedra where Nyingma teachings would be given. This meant that they had to bring in new khenpos from outside. But while Zenkar Rinpoche was there he studied with the older teachers who had been trained in the Gelugpa School. He studied all the basic Gelugpa treatises, including the presentations of the paths and bhumis, the seventy points of the Abhisamayalankara, The Precious Garland of Philosophical Tenets (grub mtha’ rin chen phreng ba) by Könchok Jikme Wangpo and so on.

在此之前不久,多智欽寺的課程計劃主要是根據格魯派的教法,尤以蔣揚.協巴(Jamyang Shyepa)的著作(yigcha)文本為依。不過,堪布袞巴(Kunpal)於近期告訴多智欽仁波切要建立一個新的佛學院,以敎導寧瑪派的教義。這意味著,他們必須從外部引入新的堪布。但當森噶仁波切在那裡時,他是從學於曾接受格魯派教育的老上師。仁波切研讀了格魯派所有的基本論述,其中包括道與地的教授,《現觀莊嚴論》的七十要義,以及袞秋.吉美.旺波的《宗義寶鬘》(grub mtha’ rin chen phreng ba)等。

In 1955, he went to Dzongsar. He received some Sakya teachings from Gongna Rinpoche and stayed there for about six months. Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche left two months after he arrived, on the beginning of his pilgrimage to Central Tibet that would eventually take him into exile. Zenkar Rinpoche remembers that Jamyang Khyentse was very friendly with the young lamas and tulkus, but still they were often afraid of him because he had a habit of testing their knowledge. He would ask what they were studying and then get them to recite some verses.

1955年,仁波切到了宗薩。他從鞏那仁波切那兒接受了一些薩迦派教法,並在那裡停留了半年左右。在他抵達後兩個月,蔣揚.欽哲仁波切便離開,啟程到西藏中部朝聖,並最後走向流亡。森噶仁波切還記得,蔣揚.欽哲對年輕喇嘛和祖古都極為友善,但他們還是往往會怕他,因為仁波切習慣會測試他們的學識。他會問他們,現在正在學什麼,然後要他們背誦一些經文。

On one occasion, Zenkar Rinpoche received the reading transmission of The Sutra of the Embodiment of Enlightened Intentions (mdo dgongs pa ‘dus pa). He had a copy of the text so that he could follow it as Jamyang Khyentse read aloud, but even though Jamyang Khyentse sounded as if he was reading at quite a slow pace, Zenkar Rinpoche could not keep up. While he was there, he also received from Jamyang Khyentse the transmission for some parts of the previous Jamyang Khyentse’s collected works. He also studied handwriting with Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s famous calligrapher, Drungyik Tsering. From Dzongsar Khenpo Damchö, who was from Minyak, he received teachings on Sakya Pandita’s Treasury of Valid Reasoning (tshad ma rigs gter) and Jamyang Loter Wangpo’s commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma.

有一次,森噶仁波切接受了《密意總集經》(mdo dgongs pa ‘dus pa)的口傳。由於他有一份文稿,因此在蔣揚.欽哲唸誦時,他便能跟讀。但即使蔣揚.欽哲似乎已經唸誦得很慢,森噶仁波切卻仍無法跟得上。他在那裡也領受了蔣揚.欽哲自己先前著作集結的部分傳授。他還向蔣揚.欽哲.確吉羅卓的著名書法家準吉.慈令學習了書法。從木雅來的宗薩堪布丹確那裡,他領受了薩迦班智達《量理寶藏論》(tshad ma rigs gter)的法教,以及蔣揚.羅迭.旺波的《阿毗達磨俱舍論》的釋論。

After his stay in Dzongsar, Zenkar Rinpoche returned to Dodrupchen Monastery. The following year, Dodrupchen Rinpoche fled to Central Tibet.

在宗薩之後,森噶仁波切回到多智欽寺。接下來的一年,多智欽仁波切逃到西藏中部。

Cover of the English translation of the Great Dictionary (tshig mdzod chen mo)

Having learned Chinese, he was appointed to work on the Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary (bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo) from 1978 to 1985, serving as the deputy editor-in-chief.

由於他學過中文,1978年到1985年間,仁波切被指派編寫《藏漢大辭典》(bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo),擔任副主編。

Later he met Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, who was on his first of the three return visits to Tibet he was to make in his later years. Soon after, he travelled to Nepal and stayed at Shechen Monastery for nine months, where Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche treated him with special kindness. Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche, one of several tulkus residing in Shechen at this time, remembers how Khyentse Rinpoche and Zenkar Rinpoche would recount stories from the lives of the great masters and converse late into the night. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche also used to tease Zenkar Rinpoche and say, “Here comes Zenkar Rinpoche in his red shawl (zen).”[2]

後來,仁波切遇到了首度回到西藏的頂果.欽哲仁波切——他一生總共返藏三次。不久後,他前往尼泊爾,停留在雪謙寺為期九個月;在那裡,頂果.欽哲仁波切對他特別愛護。吉噶.康楚仁波切,那時是住在雪謙寺中的幾位祖古之一,還記得欽哲仁波切和森噶仁波切會講述大師們一生的故事,並談話到深夜。頂果.欽哲仁波切還會調侃森噶仁波切說,「披紅色披單的森噶(zenkar,藏文意為「白披單」)仁波切來囉。」

From July 1992 to April 1999, he worked on the English translation of The Great Dictionary, with Dr. Gyurme Dorje at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

從1992年七月至1999年四月,他與久美.多傑博士一起,在倫敦的東方與非洲研究所(School of Oriental and African Studies),致力於將《藏漢大辭典》(tshig mdzod chen mo) 譯成英文。

In 1996, he met E. Gene Smith in London, and they instantly became great friends on account of their deep appreciation for, and unparalleled knowledge of, Tibetan literature.

1996年,他在倫敦遇見了琴恩.史密斯。由於他們對西藏文學都擁有深切的熱愛和無比的知識,他們倆人便一見如故。

From 1999, he spent periods in New York. He was a senior research scholar at Columbia University in the East Asian Institute, and also worked periodically with the Nitartha Organization in Vancouver on a project to compile a dictionary of terminology for the eight chariots of the practice lineage.

1999年後,他在紐約待了幾段時間。他在哥倫比亞大學的東亞研究院擔任資深研究學者,還定期與在溫哥華的正知國際學院(Nitartha Institute)合作,計畫編纂一部八大車乘修行傳承的專用辭彙字典。

He is the Director and Founder of the Project for Searching and Making Available Rare Texts in Chengdu China. In addition, he compiled a dictionary of terms from the Gesar epic in Tibetan and Chinese. He was the co-founder, vice-principal and Professor of Tibetology at the Sichuan Tibetan Language School in Chengdu, Sichuan, where he established a school for advanced studies in Tibetan language and culture.

他是中國成都「蒐尋流通珍稀文典」(意譯)計劃的負責人和發起人。此外,他以格薩爾史詩為本,編纂了一本藏漢格薩爾辭典。他也是位於四川成都的四川省藏文學校的聯合創辦人、副校長、西藏學教授。他在那裡建立了一所專門深入研究西藏語言和文化的學校。

Additionally, from 1988 to the present, Rinpoche has served as a Representative in the National People’s Congress in the People’s Republic of China, a Representative in the Sichuan Provincial People’s Congress, Vice Secretary in the Sichuan Buddhist Association and is a Standing Member of the China Buddhist Association.

此外,從1988年至今,仁波切擔任過中華人民共和國的全國人民代表大會代表、四川省人民代表大會代表、四川省佛教協會副秘書長,以及中國佛教協會常務理事。

He inspired the creation of Dipamkara, in order to translate A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher, written by the great Khenpo Ngakchung.

為了要翻譯大堪布阿瓊所撰寫的《普賢上師言教筆記》,在森噶仁波切的鼓勵下,「燃燈」翻譯小組(中譯註:Padmakara Translation Group蓮師翻譯小組的姊妹組織)因此成立並完成上述計畫。

Writings

  • LotsawaHouse-tag.png A Brief Presentation of the Nine Yanas, ཐེག་དགུའི་རྣམ་གཞག་མདོར་བསྡུས་, theg dgu'i rnam gzhag mdor bsdus
  • ལྷག་པའི་ལྷ་མཆོག་རྗེ་བཙུན་འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས་ཀྱི་སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་ཤེས་རབ་ཉིན་བྱེད་སྣང་བ་, lhag pa'i lha mchog rje btsun 'jam dpal dbyangs kyi sgrub thabs shes rab nyin byed snang ba
  • རྫ་དཔལ་སྤྲུལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་རྣམ་ཐར་མདོར་བསྡུས་, rdza dpal sprul rin po che’i rnam thar mdor bsdus

Notes

  1. See David P. Jackson, A Saint in Seattle, Wisdom Publications, 2005, pp. 126-7 and 200-3 for more information. There are also photographs of him on pages 127 and 202.
  2. Zenkar means literally ‘white shawl’.

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External Links

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Alak Zenkar Rinpoche

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