一行禪師開示選譯 Selected Teachings from Thich Nhat Hanh

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1. 一行禪師:空性之萬有The Fullness of Emptiness (一) ~ 「在」就等於「相互而在」
釋一行禪師表示,空性並非使人畏懼的事物。《心經》教導我們,「色」雖空無自我,卻充滿了自我之外的所有萬物。

如果你是一位詩人,就能清楚看到漂浮在這張紙上的雲朵。無雲則無雨;無雨則樹木不能生長;無樹則無法造紙。雲,是這張紙存在的必要元素[之一]。無雲即無這張紙。我們可以說,兩者相互而在。雖然字典裡目前尚無「相互而在」(interbeing)這一詞,只要把「相互」這個字首與「在」這個動詞合併,就能衍生出一個新的動詞:「相互而在」。

我們如果再深入查看這張紙,還可以看到其中有陽光。若無陽光,樹木便無法生長;事實上,任何生物都無法生長,甚至人類亦無法成長。於是,陽光也在這張紙裡,它們相互而在。再繼續查看下去,還會發現有伐木者,他在砍樹之後會把木材送往工廠以便製造紙張。而他每天都得依賴麵包為生,於是,可以做成麵包的小麥便也在這張紙裡。伐木工的雙親也在這張紙裡。如此查看,便會發現:若無其他的事物,這張紙就不存在。

再深入探究,我們發現自己也在這張紙裡。這點不難了解,因為當我們看著這張紙時,它就是我們感知的一部份。你的心在這張紙裡,我的心也是,所以我們可以說一切都在這張紙裡。你無法指出有什麼東西不在這張紙裡:時間、空間、大地、雨水、土壤中的礦物質、陽光、雲朵、河川、熱能…,所有都和這張紙共存。這就是為何我認為應該將「相互而在」這一詞納入字典的理由。「在」就等於「相互而在」。你無法單獨而在,必然是與各種其他事物相互而在。由於一切事物皆如此,這張紙便也是如此。

The Fullness of Emptiness


BY THICH NHAT HANH| AUGUST 6, 2012

Emptiness is not something to be afraid of, says Thich Nhat Hanh. The Heart Sutra teaches us that form may be empty of self but it’s full of everything else.

If you are a poet, you will see clearly that there is a cloud floating in this sheet of paper. Without a cloud, there will be no rain; without rain, the trees cannot grow; and without trees, we cannot make paper. The cloud is essential for the paper to exist. If the cloud is not here, the sheet of paper cannot be here either. We can say that the cloud and the paper inter-are. “Interbeing” is a word that is not in the dictionary yet, but if we combine the prefix “inter-” with the verb “to be,” we have a new verb, “inter-be.”

If we look into this sheet of paper even more deeply, we can see the sunshine in it. If the sunshine is not there, the forest cannot grow. In fact, nothing can grow. Even we cannot grow without sunshine. So we know that the sunshine is also in this sheet of paper. The paper and the sunshine inter-are. And if we continue to look, we can see the logger who cut the tree and brought it to the mill to be transformed into paper. And we see the wheat. We know that the logger cannot exist without his daily bread, and therefore the wheat that became his bread is also in this sheet of paper. And the logger’s father and mother are in it too. When we look in this way, we see that without all of these things, this sheet of paper cannot exist.

Looking even more deeply, we can see we are in it too. This is not difficult to see, because when we look at a sheet of paper, the sheet of paper is part of our perception. Your mind is in here and mine is also, so we can say that everything is in here in this sheet of paper. You cannot point out one thing that is not here—time, space, the earth, the rain, the minerals in the soil, the sunshine, the cloud, the river, the heat. Everything coexists with this sheet of paper. That is why I think the word inter-be should be in the dictionary. To be is to inter-be. You cannot just be by yourself alone. You have to inter-be with every other thing. This sheet of paper is, because everything else is.

(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/1767341523336209/?type=3&theater)

2. 一行禪師:空性之萬有The Fullness of Emptiness (二) ~ 空性不應令人畏懼
假使陽光回返太陽,各位認為這張紙有可能存在嗎?不,缺少了陽光,萬物都不可能存在。假使伐木工人回返母親[胎中],這張紙也不會存在。事實上,這張紙全都是由以上的「非紙元素」而來,若將這些非紙元素回歸其源,根本不可能出現紙。沒有這些非紙元素,包括心、伐木工、陽光…等等,便不會有紙。雖然只是一張薄紙,卻蘊涵著宇宙萬物。

然而在《心經》中卻有看似相反的描述,因為觀世音菩薩告訴我們「諸法皆空」。且讓我們進一步來探究:何謂空?(空了什麼?)

「觀自在菩薩行深般若波羅蜜多時,照見五蘊皆空」。

「菩提」是指覺醒,「薩埵」則指具有生命者。「菩提薩埵」為已然覺醒的眾生。我等凡夫時而[覺醒]為菩薩、時而[迷失]非菩薩。觀世音菩薩,是「觀察世間音聲之覺悟者」的簡稱。祂既非男亦非女;有時化現成男身、有時化現成女身。在中文、越文、韓文、日文裡,[因發音不同]有時翻譯為觀音、觀安、觀勇,意思是說:祂傾聽著世界各地傳來的呼求聲而前往救苦救難。由於祂自身早已超越了恐懼,故而也是無畏精神的體現,《般若波羅蜜多心經》便是祂賜予我們的一份奇妙的禮物。

The word “emptiness” should not scare us. It is a wonderful word.

Suppose we return the sunshine to the sun. Do you think that this sheet of paper would be possible? No, without sunshine nothing can be. And if we return the logger to his mother, then we have no sheet of paper either. The fact is that this sheet of paper is made up only of “non-paper elements.” And if we return these non-paper elements to their sources, then there can be no paper at all. Without non-paper elements, like mind, logger, sunshine, and so on, there will be no paper. As thin as this sheet of paper is, it contains everything in the universe in it.

But the Heart Sutra seems to say the opposite. Avalokiteshvara tells us that things are empty. Let us look more closely.

Empty of What?

The Bodhisattva Avalokita,
while moving in the deep course
of Perfect Understanding,
shed light on the five skandhas and
found them equally empty.

Bodhi means being awake, and sattva means a living being, so bodhisattva means an awakened being. All of us are sometimes bodhisattvas, and sometimes not. Avalokita is the shorter name of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. Avalokita is neither male nor female and sometimes appears as a man and sometimes as a woman. In Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, this bodhisattva’s name is sometimes translated as Guanyin, Quan Am, Gwaneum, and Kannon, which means “the one who listens and hears the cries of the world in order to come and help.” Avalokiteshvara also embodies the spirit of non-fear, as he himself has transcended fear. The Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra is his wonderful gift to us.

(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/1813767865360241/?type=1&theater)

3.一行禪師:「慈悲」是個動詞 “Compassion is a verb.”
你想獻給一位禪宗大師什麼禮物?

2017年10月11日(星期三),是我們敬愛的導師,釋一行禪師91歲的生日─或者依禪師所喜歡稱呼的,是他的「續約日」!

你或許會納悶:「要給一位禪宗大師什麼禮物?對於一位在任何情況下都能修持而安樂的人來說,什麼禮物才是有意義的呢?」

我們想提供的回應是:我們可以送禪師一份慈悲之禮。禪師常說「慈悲是一個動詞」,它含有對一切苦難眾生的深切關懷。

禪師為了幫助人們脫離苦厄,發願要將正念禪法帶進人間。在飽受蹂躪的越戰時期,禪師和他的同儕積極幫助了有需要的人們,且自身仍堅定護守正念的修持。由此,一種嶄新面貌的「入世佛教」從此誕生,它全然契合於當代的挑戰,讓心靈成長和社會服務相輔相成。

What Gift Do You Give a Zen Master?

On Wednesday, October 11, 2017, it will be Thich Nhat Hanh's 91st birthday –or as our beloved teacher likes to call it, his Continuation Day!

You may wonder, “What kind of gift can I give to a Zen master? A person who already practices to have all the conditions of happiness? What would be meaningful for Thay?”

We would like to offer this response: We can give Thay the gift of compassion.

Compassion contains a deep concern for the suffering of others, and Thay has often said, “Compassion is a verb.”

Thay aspired to bring mindfulness into the world in order to help relieve suffering. Amidst the devastation of the Vietnam War, Thay and his colleagues actively helped those in need while remaining grounded in their own mindfulness practice. From this work, “Engaged Buddhism” was born—a new kind of Buddhism that is fully present with the challenges of our time, and where spiritual growth and service to society go hand in hand.

(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/1709925629077799/?type=3&theater)

4.一行禪師:正念是快樂的基礎
正念是快樂的基礎。快樂的基本條件是我們能意識到自己是快樂的。如果無法覺察自己的快樂,就不會真的快樂。牙痛時,我們知道牙齒不痛是一件很棒的事。但是,牙齒不痛時,我們卻依然不快樂。無牙疼的狀態令人十分愉快,有許多事物也都令人覺得享受,但若不修持正念,就不會對它們心存感恩。顧好當下,就是顧好未來。為今後的和平努力,就是為這一刻的和平而努力。

The foundation of happiness is mindfulness. The basic condition for being happy is our consciousness of being happy. If we are not aware that we are happy, we are not really happy. When we have a toothache, we know that not having a toothache is a wonderful thing. But when we do not have a toothache, we are still not happy. A non-toothache is very pleasant. There are so many things that are enjoyable, but when we don't practice mindfulness, we don't appreciate them. When we practice mindfulness, we come to cherish these things and we learn how to protect them. By taking good care of the present moment, we take good care of the future. Working for peace in the future is to work for peace in the present moment.

Thich Nhat Hanh (Peace is Every Step: The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life)
(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/1553291421407888/?type=3&theater)

5.一行禪師:人類的生存有賴於我們停止倉促行事的能耐
我們時常告訴自己:「不要光坐在那裡,做點事吧!」但是,我們修持覺察時,就會發現某些不尋常的事。我們發現逆向行事可能更有助益。「不要光顧著做事,去坐著吧 !」為了看得更清楚,我們必須學習讓自己不時停下來。一開始,「停下來」可能被視為對現代生活的抗拒,其實不然。它不單單是一種反應,而是一種生活方式。人類的生存有賴於我們停止倉促行事的能耐。我們擁有五萬多顆核彈,卻無法停止製造更多的核彈。「停下來」不只是停止負向的事物,同時也促使正向修復得以發生。這就是我們修持的目的─非但不逃避生活,反而實際體驗生活且進而展現:幸福人生是可以企及的,無論現在或未來。

Often we tell ourselves, "Don't just sit there, do something!" But when we practice awareness, we discover something unusual. We discover the opposite may be more helpful" "Don't just do something, sit there!" We must learn to stop from time to time in order to see clearly. At first, "stopping" may look like a kind of resistance to modern life, but it is not. It is not just a reaction; it is a way of life. Humankind's survival depends on our ability to stop rushing. We have more than 50,000 nuclear bombs, and yet we cannot stop making more. "Stopping" is not only to stop the negative, but also to allow positive healing to take place. That is the purpose of our practice -- not to avoid life, but to experience and demonstrate that happiness in life is possible now and also in the future.

(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/1547983881938642/?type=3&theater)

6.一行禪師:大家都說能在水上行走是個奇蹟!
一行禪師:大家都說能在水上行走是個奇蹟,我則認為能在地上祥和地行走才是真正的奇蹟。

People say walking on the water is a miracle, but to me walking peacefully on earth is the real miracle. By Thich Nhat Hanh
(Source~ https://www.facebook.com/GlimpseFromDharmaOcean/photos/a.700089320061440/894533993950304/?type=3&theater)